Mistrust oral-sensory, Infancy, under 2 years [ edit ] Existential Question: Later Mary Ainsworth developed the Strange Situation protocol and the concept of the secure base.
Erikson viewed the elementary school years as critical for the development of self-confidence. If they are neglectful, or perhaps even abusive, the infant instead learns mistrust — that the world is an undependable, unpredictable, and possibly a dangerous place.
Adjust to physical changes of middle age. They gain a better understanding of cause and effect, and of calendar time.
Addressing these new challenges requires "designating a new ninth stage".
Reverse roles with aging parents. At this stage, children are eager to learn and accomplish more complex skills: Some babies are raised without the stimulation and attention of a regular caregiver or locked away under conditions of abuse or extreme neglect. Wisdom" Integrity imposes "a serious demand on the senses of elders".
It is during this stage that the adolescent will re-examine his identity and try to find out exactly who he or she is.
Ecological systems theory[ edit ] Main article: Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of purpose. The microsystem is the direct environment in our lives such as our home and school. In contrast, a person who is self-centered and unable or unwilling to help society move forward develops a feeling of stagnation—a dissatisfaction with the relative lack of productivity.
Things fall down, not up. Many people find that they can relate to his theories about various stages of the life cycle through their own experiences.
The macrosystem is broader taking into account social economic status, culture, beliefs, customs and morals example: Socially-valued work and disciplines are expressions of generativity. During the genital stage, puberty starts happening.
The child takes initiatives which the parents will often try to stop in order to protect the child. The eighth stage includes retrospection that can evoke a "degree of disgust and despair". People experience a need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often having mentees or creating positive changes that will benefit other people.
Children are becoming more independent, and begin to look at the future in terms of career, relationships, families, housing, etc.
Erik Erikson believed if we see our lives as unproductive, feel guilt about our past, or feel that we did not accomplish our life goals, we become dissatisfied with life and develop despair, often leading to depression and hopelessness.
Is It Okay to Be Me? Once people have established their identities, they are ready to make long-term commitments to others.During each stage, the person experiences a psychosocial crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development. For Erikson (), these crises are of a psychosocial nature because they involve psychological needs of the individual (i.e.
psycho) conflicting with the needs of society (i.e. social). Developmental psychologist Erik H. Erikson () was best known for his theory on social development of human beings, and for coining the phrase identity crisis.
The theory describes eight stages through which a healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development emphasizes the sociocultural determinants of development and presents them as eight stages of psychosocial conflicts (often known as Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development) that all individuals must overcome or resolve successfully in order to adjust well to the environment.
Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development. Like Piaget, Erik Erikson () maintained that children develop in a predetermined order.
Instead of focusing on cognitive development, however, he was interested in how children socialize and how this affects their sense of self. Developmental psychology is the scientific study of how and why human beings change over the course of their life.
Originally concerned with infants and children, the field has expanded to include adolescence, adult development, aging, and the entire currclickblog.compmental psychologists aim to explain how thinking, feeling, and behaviors change throughout life.
The seven stages of psychological development and the three stages of the ego-soul evolutionary dynamic are shown in Figure 2. Figure 2: The three evolutionary stages of the ego-soul dynamic.Download